The rank and title of Grand Duke of Rome is held by right by the members of the Pontifical Household of the Papa-Catholicos of Rome-Ruthenia, following customs from the Middle Ages. It originated with Eastern Roman Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. It represents the highest rank of noble title within the Pontifical States and ranks immediately below the dignity of Cardinal. The Grand Dukes and Grand Duchesses hold the style of Imperial and Royal Highness.

The title is specifically held by the following persons: 

1. The immediate family of the Papa-Catholicos, i.e., any children, parents, and siblings. 

2. The Grand-Duchess of Rome-Ruthenia and the immediate family thereof, i.e., any children, parents, and siblings. 

3. The Electors of Trier, Mainz, Cologne, and Würzburg and their consorts.

Grand Ducal Crown



The Stato Pontificio Romano constitutes an ecclesiastical sovereignty by right of Rome as heir to the Roman Empire with an independent government in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (as the Anglican Rite Roman Catholic Church). Additionally, the church descends from the See of Utrecht, which was granted autonomy in 1145 by Pope Eugene III and confirmed in 1520 by Pope St. Leo X in the Bull Debitum Pastoralis. As the sole successor of Pope St. Leo X and temporal successor of St. Peter the Apostle, the Catholicate and Patriarchate are fully Catholic and holds the same canonical authority as the Roman Communion (Vatican). The Catholicate and Patriarchate are the ecclesiastical successor to temporal Rome, the temporal patrimony of the Roman Empire claimed historically by right of the papacy. The succession passed to the Catholicate after Benedict XVI by right of Rome and Florence, with the Papa-Catholicos of Rome-Ruthenia with papal authority as temporal successor of St. Peter, and the Pope-Bishop of Rome as spiritual successor of St. Peter and de facto sovereign of the Vatican City-State. Although administratively independent, the Apostolic See embraces as brethren other Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican bodies, such as the current Roman Communion (commonly referred to as the Roman Catholic Church), the Anglican Ordinariate, Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the Anglican Communion. The Imperial Roman Church is defined as the Gallo-Russo-Byzantine Catholicate, the Anglican Patriarchate of Rome, and the churches of all Bishops recognised by the Catholicate. The governments of the modern republics of Italy, German, France, Switzerland, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and the United States, and of the modern kingdoms of Great Britain and Spain, as well as the European Union and all other civil states, are not affiliated with the Stato Pontificio government in exile.






















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